Archived Material (Referencing)

Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising

Paraphrasing and summarising

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By paraphrasing or summarising someone else's work, you are able to outline their ideas and arguments using your own words.


Paraphrasing involves putting another person’s ideas into your own words; you must still acknowledge the original source by including a reference.  You must also ensure you fairly represent what the original author was saying.

Knowing how to avoid plagiarism through correct quoting and referencing is an important skill for students to acquire (Smith 2008, p.1)


To summarise, you would use your own words to condense and re-state someone’s ideas rather than include a very long quote or several short ones.

If you are summarising an entire work you can omit the page number in the reference. If summarising a page or two, include the page/page range.

Smith outlines Harvard, APA and Numeric as three referencing styles students could use (2008, pp.22-23)


Make sure you don’t distort the author’s original meaning.