Archived Material (Referencing)

Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising


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Quoting is directly copying the words of another person into your assignment. You need to show that you have intended to do this by following a known quoting convention (shown using the Harvard referencing style):

Short quote

If you are just copying a few words or one sentence, include this in your normal sentence and then put quotation marks around it (and include your reference):

It has been outlined that “a short quotation can be incorporated into the flow of a sentence” (Smith 2008, p.1).


  • Use "double" quotation marks ideally - but be consistent.
  • Use … to indicate where any words have been omitted from the quotation
  • Use [ ] to show any words that you have changed or inserted into the quotation (e.g. to change the tense of the sentence).

Long quote

If you are copying a few sentences or a paragraph, you need to start the quotation on a new line, indent the quotation and use single line spacing.  You do not need to use quotation marks - but remember to include your reference:

Smith (2008, p.1) has stressed the importance of quoting correctly:

By indicating clearly where you are quoting from another source, you are less likely to be accused of plagiarism. You must also include the details of the source you are referring to. How you do this is determined by the referencing style you are using such as Harvard or APA. 

Quoting and Turnitin

As the University now uses Turnitin for essay submission, it is important to note that this programme will only exclude quoted material from the similarity comparison if the quotes appear in double quotation marks, or in indented quotes.