Archived Material (Referencing)

The American Psychological Association (APA) System

Referencing within your assignment

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In-text citations

To include an APA reference to your information source within your assignment text, you need to enter several details alongside your discussion of the source:

  • Author(s) surname/corporate name
  • Year the work was published

These details can be provided in two ways:

  • Incorporate the author’s name into your sentence and follow it with the year in brackets:

Smith (2008) highlights the importance of consistent referencing within an essay.

  • Put both details in brackets at the end of a paraphrased sentence:

In an essay, it is important to reference consistently (Smith, 2008).

There are different formats depending on whether you are using a primary or secondary source and how many authors there are.


To avoid an accusation of plagiarism, you must include references within your assignment wherever your work is based on another source.