Reflective thinking and writing
How to think reflectively
Schön (1991) presented the concept of 'reflection in action' and 'reflection on action':
|Reflection in action||Reflection on action|
Schön's theory is that there are two types of reflection, one during and one after an activity or event.
Example of using Schön's model
Reflection in action
- You are in a lecture and keep being distracted by thinking about what to have for lunch!
- You want to get the most from the lecture so need to find a way to help you focus.
- You decide to start making some notes of the key points.
Reflection on action
- You notice that sometimes after a lecture you can’t remember what was covered.
- You find out about the lecture topic in advance and write down some questions you want answered.
- You make notes during the lecture to help you focus.
- You arrange to go for a coffee after the lecture and talk with your peers about what was presented, to help you understand and form your own opinions.
- You file your lecture notes and any handouts.
You can put these models into practice through your reflective writing.