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Harvard Solent style references

This book contains all the different examples of Harvard Solent style linked to above. Once you open the book, you can navigate the different types of references using the table of contents which appears on the left. 

Site: Solent Online Learning
Course: 6. Referencing
Book: Harvard Solent style references
Printed by: Guest user
Date: Wednesday, 28 October 2020, 8:57 PM

Guidance: No example for the source

How can I create a reference for a type of source which isn't in the list?


Ask yourself 4 questions to decide how to reference it. 


1. Is this type of source appropriate for me to be using for my assignment?  Check with your tutor if you are not sure.


2. What is the most similar source? Examine the type of details which are included in a reference.


3. What details can I find for the source? Author and date are essential. There will also be information available about where and how the source was published. For online material note where and when you accessed the source.


4. Which order should I put reference details in? Look again at the most similar source. For Harvard References, the overall order is AUTHOR, DATE, PUBLISHING DETAILS, (ACCESS DETAILS)


Remember that the main aim of a reference is to HELP your reader be able to locate the source, so give as much detail as possible in the appropriate order. 


Guidance: Author of multiple works


If an author has written more than one work in a year, add a,b,c, etc after the date to distinguish between them.


In text examples:

Smith (2007a, p.22) suggested… Further, Smith (2007b, p.3) explained…


Reference list examples:

SMITH, A., 2007a. How to cite references. Southampton: Solent Publishing

SMITH, A., 2007b. Avoiding plagiarism. Southampton: Solent Publishing


This system applies no matter what format the source material is in; so if an author published a book, a podcast and a journal article all in 2010, they would still be given as 2010a, 2010b and 2010c.


If an author has written more than one solo work in different years, list them in date order (oldest to newest).

Authors with the same surname

If there are two or more different authors with the same surname who have published material in the same year, add the initial after the surname to differentiate them.

 

In text examples:

As outlined by Martin, J. (2018, p.31) it is clear ….  This is also evidenced … (Martin, L. 2018)

 

Reference list examples:

MARTIN, J., 2018.  Academic writing explained.  Southampton: Solent Publishing

MARTIN, L., 2018.  How to succeed in your studies.  Southampton: Solent Publishing

 

List the items in your full reference list by alphabetical order of surname within the whole list and then by initial where the surnames and year of publication are the same.  Where the surnames are the same but the year of publication is different, reference each item as you would normally by author surname and year.

 


Guidance: Multiple Authors


Up to three authors - include all authors (with second and third author initials before surname).


In text example:

As Smith, Stewart and Cullen (2006) have argued...


Reference list example:

SMITH, F., R. STEWART and D. CULLEN, 2006.  Adoption now: law, regulations guidance and standards.  London: BAAF


More than three authors - always give the first author, with or without the others - use et al. if not giving the other names.


In text example:

Mares et al. (2002, p.105) proposed...


Reference list example:

MARES, P. et al., 2002. Health care in multiracial Britain. Cambridge: Health Education Council

Guidance: Missing author

If a work has no author, ideally try and find a corporate author.  If you really can't find one, use Anon. Consider the quality of the source to ensure you feel it is appropriate to include if no author is assigned to it.

Corporate authors

These can be a company, an organisation or an institution. 

In text example:

Home Office (2001) has outlined...

Reference list example:

HOME OFFICE, 2001.  Policing a new century: a blueprint for reform.  Norwich: The Stationery Office

Missing authors (Anon.)

 

In text example:

As evidenced by Anon. (2004)...

Reference list example:

ANON., 2004.  Social services year book 2004.  32nd ed.  Harlow: Pearson Education

Written Sources

This section contains examples of references for written sources.


The type of details you might need to include...


Essential 

Author: Some authors are unknown, for example on a website. In this case give the name of the organisation who produced the material.

Title: If the source is a section of a bigger piece of work, you will give the title of the item and the title of the whole.

Date: Give the date of the edition you are citing or the date of latest update.


Additional publishing information

Editor: Name the editor when the source is published in a collection. 

Edition: If a source has been published more than once, indicate the edition or version you are referencing.

Volume: most journals are published in volumes. 

Page: If the source is a section of a bigger piece of work, indicate the pages the source can be found on.

Place of publication: Most printed sources will indicate where they were published. 


Access 

If you have accessed material online (excluding e-journals and e-books)

Date accessed: Indicate when you looked at the source.

URL:  Copy the full URL so that your reader can find the original source.


Article in a Journal



Type of source

Journal Article

In text reference

Wilson and Till (2008, p.60) discovered that..

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal, volume number(issue or part number), pages

Reference list example 

WILSON, R.T. and B.D. TILL, 2008. Airport advertising effectiveness: an exploratory field study. Journal of advertising, 37(1), 59-72

Reference list example (no volume) 

MESSMER, M., 2003. Public speaking success strategies. The national public accountant, Nov 2003, 26

Notes

If the journal does not have a volume and part number, use the publication date instead (see above). 



Some articles are published online in advance of being formally published in the journal.  These can be called ‘advance online publication’, ‘published ahead of print’ or ‘epub ahead of print’ or a similar variation.  These will often miss some of the standard details given in a journal article reference such as volume number, issue number and page numbers.  Give as many details as you have available for a standard journal article reference.  If you don’t have volume, issue and page numbers, you could use the date of publication online instead.  You will need to include a statement to indicate your article is published online ahead of formal publication.

Type of source

Articles pre-published online

In text reference

Bishop et al. 2017 have identified that

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of journal, publication day and month if no volume and issue number [epub ahead of print]

Reference list example 

BISHOP, C., et al., 2017.   Heavy Barbell Hip Thrusts Do Not Effect Sprint Performance: An 8-Week Randomized–Controlled Study.  Journal of strength and conditioning research, 24 July [epub ahead of print]




Article in magazine, newspaper



Type of source

Magazine or Newspaper Article

In text reference

Whitfield (2008, p.35) stated...

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title of article. Title of magazine/newspaper, date of publication, pages

Reference list example 

WHITFIELD, N., 2008. The evolution of broadband. Personal computer world, June 2008, 30-7

Reference list example

FOREMAN, J., 2005. Olympic cities brought to their knees by the games. Daily mail, 7 July, 1-2

 

Books: Whole books, sections and edited books



Type of source

Book

In text reference

Stevens (1996, p.2) pointed out that “referencing is a skill all students should develop”.

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher

Reference list example (first edition)

STEVENS, M., 1996. How to be better at … giving presentations. London: Kogan Page

Reference list example (later editions) 

BELL, J., 2005. Doing your research project: a guide for first time researchers in education, health and social science. 4th ed. Maidenhead: Open UP

Notes

Give a page number for a quotation or a shorter idea that has been taken from a specific page. If you are summarising a general theory across a book or a chapter, do not give a page number.



Type of source

Book Section

In text reference

Andrews (2002, p.98) put forward the idea that...

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S) OF ESSAY, Year of publication. Title of essay. In: EDITOR(S) of book. Title of book. Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers of essay

Reference list example 

ANDREWS, M., 2002. Using technology in your presentation. In: L.WHITE and E. DAVIDS, eds. Enhancing your presentation. London: Sage, pp.91-104

 

Notes

Note that the actual page where the quotation comes from is given in-text, while the page numbers for the whole essay are given in the reference list.




Type of source

Edited Book

In text reference

As suggested by Watkins and Mason (2017, p.45) businesses…

Reference list format

EDITOR(S), eds., Year of publication. Title of book. Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher

Reference list example 

WATKINS, J. and P. MASON, eds., 2017. Business Information Systems: current issues. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press

 




Conference Paper



Type of source

Conference Paper

In text reference

Hummel and Atkinson (2007, p.31) gave the proposal...

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S) OF PAPER, Year of publication. Title of paper. In: EDITOR(S). Title of conference including the date and location. Place of publication: Publisher, pages

Reference list example 

HUMMEL, O. and C. ATKINSON, 2007. Supporting agile reuse through extreme harvesting. In: G. CONCAS et al., eds. Agile processes in software engineering and extreme programming: 8th international conference, XP 2007, Como, Italy, June 18-22, 2007, Proceedings. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp.28-37

 

 

Dissertations and Theses



Type of source

Dissertation or Thesis

In text reference

Davis (2006, p.24) explained that...

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Type of qualification, Academic institution

Reference list example 

DAVIS, L., 2006. British travellers and the rediscovery of Sicily: 16th-19th century. PhD Thesis, Southampton Solent University

 

 

Play text



Type of source

Play text

In text reference

“Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more” (Shakespeare 1968, 3.1:1).

Reference list format

PLAYWRIGHT SURNAME, Initial., Year of publication.  Title of play.  Editor details (if given).  Place of publication: Publisher

Reference list example 

SHAKESPEARE, W., 1968.  Henry V. Edited by A.R. HUMPHREYS.  London: Penguin

Notes

Include the act, scene and line number in the in-text reference along with the playwright and year of publication.





Social Media, Blogs, Discussion Lists



Type of source

Social Media Post

In text reference

Andrews (2002, p.98) put forward the idea that...

Reference list format

Author, year. Title of page. [Name of site]. Day/month of posted message. [viewed day month year]

Reference list example 

JONES, S. (2009) Referencing Group. [Facebook] 5th May. Available from: www.facebook.com [Accessed 09/05/09]. 

Reference list example  

SMITH-MAY, N, 2016. British woman can adopt girl found in box in Egypt, judge rules. [Twitter]. 29/11/2016 [viewed 29/11/2016] 
Available from: https://twitter.com/guardian/status/803627951724068864 

 Reference list example   LEARNING SKILLS AT SOLENT, 2015. Intended for secondary school teachers but some apps here which are still useful in further education. [Facebook status update]. 12th October. [viewed 29/11/2016] 
Available from: https://www.facebook.com/succeedatsolent

Notes

 If the content is behind a password give the main web address for the site as the URL.





Type of source

Blog or discussion list

In text reference

Bradley (2008) explained...

Reference list format (blog)

AUTHOR(S), Year. Title of blog entry. In: Blog title. Full date of blog entry [viewed date]. Available from: URL

Reference list example (blog) 

BRADLEY, P., 2008. Word of the day is 'exaflood'. In: Phil Bradley's weblog. 29 April 2008 [viewed 9 May 2008]. Available from: http://philbradley.typepad.com/phil_bradleys_weblog/

Reference list format (discussion) 

AUTHOR(S), Year. Subject of message. In: Discussion list. Full date of message [viewed date]. Available from: URL of archive or individual message or email address of list

Reference list example (discussion)

JONES, A., 2008. Citing standards. In: Lis-link. 16 June 2008 [viewed 20 June 2008]. Available from: http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/LIS-LINK.html

 Notes  As web pages, blogs do not have page numbers.


Websites, YouTube and Wikis



Type of source

Website or YouTube

In text reference

In the video from Southampton Solent (2014), it is evident that...

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication or last update. Title of page [viewed date]. Available from: URL

Reference list example 

SOUTHAMPTON SOLENT, 2014.  Southampton Solent University new build animation [viewed 28 July 2015].  Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQJDLiP-GyY

Reference list example 

DEAKIN UNIVERSITY, 2010. The literature review [viewed 6 May 2008]. Available from: http://www.deakin.edu.au/library/findout/research/litrev.php

Notes

If no author is given, use the provider of the website as the author. This may be the name of a University, a company, a newspaper, or just the website name.





Type of source

Wiki

In text reference

Anon. (2018) suggests that…

Reference list format

ANON., Year of last update. Title of entry. In: Wiki name [viewed date]. Available from: URL

Reference list example 

ANON., 2018. How to improve your study skills. In: Wikihow [viewed 13 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.wikihow.com/Improve-Your-Study-Skills

Notes

Wikis are collaborative creations that can be edited and added to by anyone - so you may not always be able to rely on the quality of the information given. Therefore, consider finding a more authoritative source to reference instead. If you do decide to reference a wiki, you will need to reference it as an anonymous entry (unless you can find an author specifically identified as responsible for the content) and date of update.





Items in repositories

Format

AUTHOR/S, Year.  Title of preprint.  Repository name [preprint/postprint/dataset as appropriate] [viewed date].  Available from: URL for repository entry

Example

YAMADA, T., A. PRUGEL-BENNETT and B. THORNTON, 2020.  Learning Features from georeferenced seafloor imagery with location guided autoencoders.  University of Southampton Institutional Repository [preprint] [viewed 11th June 2020].  Available from: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/441375/

Notes

  • If you can find a final published version of the item you should use and reference that instead.
  • Some articles may also be published online in a journal ahead of full publication – for these please see the example Articles pre-published online.


Audio, Image and Video Sources

...

Film, DVD, Videos



Type of source

Film, DVD or Video

In text reference

This can be seen in Welles' version of Macbeth (1948).

Reference list format

Title, Year [material designation]. Subsidiary originator (if applicable e.g. Director). Production details

Reference list example (film)

Macbeth, 1948 [film]. Directed by Orson WELLES. USA: Republic Pictures

Reference list example (DVD) 

Cross cultural communication skills, 2005 [DVD]. Gower

Notes

You only need to give the film title and the year of production the first time you reference it. After the first mention, you can just use the film title.


Image and artistic pieces

Reference an image according to the source it was found in, such as a book, website, gallery. 


Image from a print source

Printed images are usually found in books or magazines. Follow the examples for how to reference a book, magazine article etc. as appropriate. 


Image from electronic source

Electronic images are usually found on websites or in a database. Follow the example for referencing a website


Artistic pieces


Type of source

Painting, sculpture, photograph, mannequin, or other artistic piece.

In text reference

As can be seen in the painting Dancing lesson (Degas 1880).

Reference list format

ARTIST(S), Year. Title of work [material designation]. At: Location

Reference list example 

DEGAS, E., 1880. Dancing lesson [oil on canvas]. At: Williamstown, Massachusetts: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute (no.562)


 



Interview



Type of source

Interview

In text reference

Blair (1997) made the claim that…

Reference list format

INTERVIEWEE., Year. Interview. In: Programme title. Channel. Date. Time

Reference list example 

BLAIR, T., 1997. Interview. In: Six o'clock news. BBC1. 15 August. 18:00

Notes

Your own primary research does not need to be referenced - cite your interviewee in the text as a personal communication, with a referral, if appropriate, to the full interview transcript in an appendix.

Musical Score



Type of source

Published Musical Score

In text reference

..as seen in the influence of folk music (Britten 1980).

Reference list format

ORIGINATOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Subsidiary ORIGINATOR (e.g. editor). Place of publication: Publisher

Reference list example 

BRITTEN, B., 1980. Eight folk song arrangements, for high voice and harp. Osian ELLIS, ed. London: Faber Music

 

 

Radio programme, podcast



Type of source

Radio Programme

In text reference

This issue has been discussed on the radio ... (Woman's hour, 2008).

Reference list format

Programme title, Year of broadcast [radio]. Channel. Date. Time

Reference list example 

Woman's hour, 2008 [radio]. BBC Radio 4. 4 June. 19:00

 Notes

If one person is clearly responsible for the content of the reference, they can be named as the creator. See below.



Type of source

Radio Programme (one named creator is responsible for content)

In text reference

This issue is highlighted by Smith (2008) in a radio broadcast...

Reference list format

CREATOR(S), Year of broadcast [radio].  Programme title. Channel. Date. Time

Reference list example 

SMITH, A., 2008 [radio].  Woman's hour. BBC Radio 4. 4 June. 19:00



Type of source

Podcast

In text reference

Riddoch (2008) described...

Reference list format

BROADCASTER (if available), Year of broadcast. Title of podcast [podcast]. Date of podcast [accessed date]. Available from: URL

Reference list example 

RIDDOCH, L., 2008. Harnessing Scotland’s energy [podcast]. 29 December [accessed 9 February 2009]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/audio/2008/dec/29/scotland-energy-lesley-riddoch

 

Sound recording, Song, Album



Type of source

Sound Recording

In text reference

Gordon (1976) is an example of…

Reference list format

ORIGINATOR(S), Year of publication. Title of piece. In: Title of source. Medium. Production details, numeration. Distributor

Reference list example 

GORDON, D., 1976. Settin' the pace. In: Long tall Dexter, the Savoy sessions. Stereo sound disk. New York: Savoy, SIL 221, side B, track 5. Distributed by Arista Records Inc.

 



Type of source

Songs and Albums

In text reference

The Levellers (1991) include this in...

Reference list format

ARTIST, Year.  Song title (if needed).  In: Album title (if needed) [format e.g. CD].  Catalogue number (if available).  Record label (if available).

Reference list example (single from an album)

LEVELLERS, 1991.  Far from home.  In: Levelling the land [CD].  WOLCDL 1022.  China Records

Reference list example (single)

THE BEATLES, 1968.  Hey Jude [vinyl 7” single].  R 5722.  Apple Records

Reference list example (album)

LEVELLERS, 1991.  Levelling the land [CD].  WOLCDL 1022.  China Records

Note  There are some variations on what is included in a reference depending on whether you are referencing a single or a whole album. See above for examples.



Type of source

Online release or self-release music

In text reference

.. this is shown in the work of the Solent Band (2015)

Reference list format

ARTIST, Year.  Song title.  In: Album title (if available) [format e.g. online single].  Catalogue number (if available).  Record label (if available) [viewed date].  Available from: URL

Reference list example (single from album)

SOLENT BAND, 2015.  The joy of studying.  In: The Uni days [self-released single].  SSU2015.  Solent Records [viewed 15th December 2015].  Available from: www.solentrecords.ac.uk

Reference list example (single only) 

SOLENT BAND, 2015.  The joy of studying [self-released single].  SSU SR 2015.  Solent Records [viewed 15th December 2015].  Available from: www.solentrecords.ac.uk

Notes

If you want to look up catalogue numbers, the Discogs website may be useful.



Type of source

Discography

In text reference

(The Who, 1982)...

Reference list format

Write the same again, followed by the title of the album in italics followed by [CD] place of distribution (i.e. a town or city): Name of distributor.

Reference list example 

THE WHO, 1982. It's Hard [CD]. UK: Polydor

 

 

Video game



Type of source

Video Game

In text reference

The use of music is a fundamental component in video games, as is evident in Solent Video Creatives (2017).

Reference list format

Originators, Year of first release. Title of game [video game]. Publisher

Reference list format (online)

Originators, Year of first release. Title of game [video game]. Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: URL/location

Reference list example

Solent Video Creatives, 2017.  Match time [video game].  SSU Arts

Reference list example (online)

Solent Video Creatives, 2017.  Match time [video game].  SSU Arts [viewed 10th February 2018].  Available from: www.solentarts.com

TV programme



Type of source

TV Programme

In text reference

This event was reported on television the same day (News at Ten, 2008).

Reference list format

Programme title, Year [TV]. Channel. Date. Time [if necessary]

Reference list example 

News at ten, 2008 [TV]. ITV1. 16th June

 



Type of source

Episode in a series

In text reference

24 hours in A&E, series 4, episode 8, A few good men (2013) includes…

Reference list format

Series title, series #, episode #, episode title, Year [medium].  Channel. Date.

Reference list example 

24 hours in A&E, series 4, episode 8, A few good men, 2013 [TV].  More4.  5 April

 



Type of source

Episode from on-demand platform

In text reference

The characters are… (Designated Survivor, series 1, episode 3, The confession 2016)

In text reference 2

Britain’s secret charity cheats, series 2, episode 1 (2019) demonstrates this…

Reference list format

Series title, series #, episode #, episode title, Year [medium].  Channel/platform.  Date [if available]

 Reference list example 

Designated Survivor, series 1, episode 3, The confession, 2016 [TV].  Netflix

 Reference list example 2  Britain’s secret charity cheats, series 2, episode 1, 2019 [TV].  iPlayer.  27 May

Live performances

....

General Performance



Type of source

General Performance


Reference list format

PERFORMER/AUTHOR/DIRECTOR/COMPANY as appropriate, Year of Performance.  Title or brief description of performance [live performance]. Place of performance: Performance venue.  Date of performance

 

  

 

Presentation



Type of source

Presentations and Lectures

In text reference

Brown (2014) outlined how to...

Reference list format

LECTURER, Year. Title of lecture or PowerPoint.  Lecture delivered to [name of course, level #], date of lecture

Reference list example 

BROWN, P., 2014.  The basics of civil engineering.  Lecture delivered to HNC Civil Engineering, Level 4, 10th October 2014

Notes

You are advised to use academic sources for your work.  However, if you do wish to reference lecture notes you could follow the example above.

Play performance



Type of source

Play Performance

In text reference

Porter's (2017) depiction of librarians.....

Reference list format

AUTHOR SURNAME, Initial., Year of Performance.  Title of play [live performance].  Dir. INITIAL. DIRECTOR SURNAME.  Place of performance: Performance venue.  Date of performance

*Note: Director is abbreviated to dir.

Reference list example 

PORTER, H. 2017.  Lost in the Library [live performance].  Dir. P. JONES. Southampton: Solent Theatre.  23 May 2017

NOTE:

If no author/director/company is clearly given, enter the play by title in your in text reference and remove the author and director from the full reference. 

In text reference

As seen in Good times (2018), the role of the lead actor…

Reference list example  Good times [live performance], 2018.  Southampton: Solent Hall.  5th July 2018




Type of source

Streamed or recorded performance viewed online

In text reference

This was evident in Ibsen (2012) .....

Reference list format

AUTHOR SURNAME, Initial., Year of Performance.  Title of play [live performance].  Dir. INITIAL. DIRECTOR SURNAME.  Place of performance [if known]: Performance venue [if known].  Date of performance if known [viewed date].  Available from: Platform name or URL 

Reference list example 

IBSEN, H., 2012.  A doll’s house [live performance].  Dir. C. CRACKNELL.  London: Young Vic Theatre.  17 & 18 July [viewed 9 July 2018].  Available from: Digital Theatre Plus

  

 

Concerts and Live Music



Type of source

Concerts and Live Music

In text reference

While some performers play with the acoustics of their venue (Smith, 2016), …

Reference list format

ARTIST SURNAME, Initial., Year of Performance.  Title of concert [or description of performance if no title] [live performance].  Place of performance: Performance venue.  Date of performance

Reference list format (band)

BAND NAME, Year of Performance.  Title of concert [or description of performance if no title] [live performance].  Place of performance: Performance venue.  Date of performance

Reference list example  

SMITH, H., 2016.  Music performed at conference gala dinner [live performance].  Southampton: Southampton Solent University.  15th October.

Reference list example (band)

TAKE THAT, 2009.  The Circus Live [live performance].  London: Wembley Stadium.  3rd July.



Personal Correspondence

...

Email

It is generally accepted that personal communications such as letters and telephone conversations do not need to be included in the final reference list. However, you can refer to them in an assignment and include the full details in your text.

Type of source

Email

In text reference

Jones (2008) stated...

Reference list format

SENDER'S NAME (sender's email address), date. Subject of message. Email to RECIPIENT'S NAME (recipient's email address)

Reference list example 

JONES, A., (ajones@hotmail.com), 4 May 2008. Writing essays. Email to D. BROWN (d.brown@hotmail.com)

 

 

Letters & Phone Calls

It is generally accepted that personal communications such as letters and telephone conversations do not need to be included in the final reference list. However, you can refer to them in an assignment and include the full details in your text.



Type of source

Letter

In text reference

As stated in a letter from D. White on 21st July 2007, it is...

Reference list format (if desired)

NAME(S), Year. [Outline of topic discussed] (personal communication, date)

Reference list example 

WHITE, D., 2007. [Letter on the history of education in Southampton] (personal communication, 21 July)

Notes

You should get permission to refer to the communication before using it.

 



Type of source

Telephone conversation

In text reference

J. Brown outlined this idea in a telephone call on 10th August 2008.

Reference list format

NAME(S), Year. [Outline of topic discussed] (personal communication, date)

Reference list example 

BROWN, J., 2008. [Telephone conversation on study skills] (personal communication, 10 August)

Notes

You should get permission to refer to the communication before using it.

 

Legal & Government sources

....

Legislation (UK)

NOTE: Law students should use the OSCOLA system to cite legal references.


The name and date of the legislation should be included within the text of your assignment, with additional information in the reference list.

UK Acts (Statutes)

Title of legislation including year

In text example:

This is governed by the Environment Act 1995.

Reference list examples:

Environment Act 1995

Each Act has a chapter number which you can also include:

Environment Act 1995, Ch 25

If you are referring to a particular part of an Act, then include the section (s. or ss.), schedule (sch.) or paragraph (para) reference:

Environment Act 1995, Ch 25, ss.5-11

Environment Act 1995, Ch 25, sch. 1, para 2

Statutory Instruments (Orders, Rules and Regulations)

Title and year of Statutory Instrument (number)

In text examples:

Cite the title, year and number of the SI (Statutory Instrument) in italics – after the first mention you can refer to them by title/year or SI number.

...as stated in the Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925).

SIs are divided into articles (art.), rules (r. or rr.) or regulations (reg or regs):

...with reference to the Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925) r.15(2).

Reference list examples:

Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925)

Insolvency Rules 1986 (SI 1986/925) r.15(2)

Bills (proposals for legisation)

Short title (Parliamentary Session) Serial Number

In text example:

...as described in the Harbours Bill HL Bill (2002-03).

Reference list example:

The serial number changes every time the Bill is reprinted. Include [ ] for House of Commons Bill numbers:

Health and Safety at Work (Offences Bill) HC Bill (2002-03) [38]

Harbours Bill HL Bill (2002-03) 24

Legal case (UK)

NOTE: Law students should be using the OSCOLA system to cite legal references.


The basic format for creating a Harvard reference for a UK case is:

Names of the parties [Year of publication] Volume number (if available) Abbreviated Reference for the Law Report Series Start page


In text example:

...as documented in Central London Property Trust Ltd v High Trees House Ltd [1947] KB 130

You can generally use the first party name for any subsequent references if it is clear to which case you are referring:

...also in Central London Property Trust Ltd .     

UK case in a law report

If you wish to refer to specific pages within a judgment, then include these after the reference.

In text examples:

Pepper (Inspector of Texes) v Hart [1993] AC 593, 594

Pepper (Inspector of Texes) v Hart [1993] AC 593 at 594

Neutral citations

High Court and Court of Appeal cases from 2001 onwards have neutral citations. A neutral citation includes the year of the judgment, the Court abbreviation (e.g. UKHL=UK House of Lords, EWCA=England and Wales Court of Appeal) and the case number. This can be included before a law report citation, or where a case is otherwise unreported:

Reference list example:

R v Rezvi [2002] UKHL 1

If you wish to refer to specific paragraphs within a judgment, then include these after the reference as above.

Unreported cases

Some unreported cases can be found as transcripts or via the legal databases. A neutral citation should be given where possible. Cases prior to 2001 should include:

Names of the Parties. Court. Date of Judgment (Unreported)

Reference list example:

Hare v Pollard. Court of Appeal Civil Division. 16 June 1997 (Unreported)

Use of round or square brackets

Round brackets should be used instead of square where the date is not essential for locating the case - e.g. where a volume number is provided and the date referred to is the year of judgment (rather than publication date):

Reference list example:

Holdom v Kidd and Others (1986) 61 P&CR 456

Referring to a case you have read about in a textbook

It is generally best to look up legal cases and refer to a law report or official version. Law reports can be found online via the Westlaw and LexisLibrarydatabases. If, however, you only want to refer to a case that you have found in a legal textbook, you must treat this as a secondary reference.

In text example:

Smith v Jones [2001] EWCA 1425 (cited in Murphy 2007, p.4) implies that...

Reference list example:

Fully reference the textbook you have actually read (e.g. Murphy in this example).

Legal Case (EU)

European Union Cases

 All European Union cases and the appropriate details needed to create a reference can be found on EurLex.


The first time that you cite a case, refer to it in full in your text as per the example below.  You can then use a shortened version such as the Party Names or Case number (provided it is clear which case you are referring to):

Case number Party Names [Year] Law report abbreviation Volume number – Start page 

Case C-286/88 Falciola v Comune di Pavia [1990] ECR 1-191 

 

European Court of Human Rights cases, which are not European Union cases, can be found via Hudoc.

Legislation (EU & International)

European Union legislation

All European Union legislation and the appropriate details needed to create a reference can be found on EurLex.


The basic formats for creating a Harvard reference for EU legislation,
both in the text and in your reference list are below.  After the first mention in your text, you can usually use a shortened title provided it is clear to which legislation you are referring. 

Please note that the abbreviation EC/EU/EEC may vary depending on the date of publication.

 

Regulations

Institutional Origin (Institutional Treaty) Number/year Date it was passed Title

Council Regulation (EC) No. 2078/92 of 30 June 1992 on the agricultural production method

 

Commission Documents (Com Docs)

Title, COM (Last two digits of year) Serial number, draft or final.

Proposal for a Council Directive on uniform procedures for checks on the transport of dangerous goods, COM (93) 965, final.

 

Directives and Decisions

Institutional origin Form Year/Legislation Number/ Institutional Treaty Date passed Title

 Council Directive 92/83/EEC of 19 October 1992 on the harmonization of the structures of excise duties on alcoholic beverages

 

For additional European Union legal publications, include as a minimum Title Year.  

In your reference list, you can also include any additional information which clarifies the reference for reader - e.g. legal references or series numbers and additional dates.  

Consider including [viewed date]. Available from: so your reader can quickly identify the source.  

 

International legislation

United Nations Treaties:

All United Nations Treaties and the appropriate details needed to create a reference can be found via the UN Treaty Collection.

In your text, include the Treaty title Year signed in italics.  

In your reference list, provide full details:

Treaty title Year signed. Volume number UNTS page number, entered into force full date.

Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning transplantation of organs and tissues of human origin 2002.  2466 UNTS 132, entered into force 1 May 2006

 

For other international treaties, include as a minimum Title Year.  

In your reference list, include any additional information which clarifies this legislation for the reader - e.g. legal reference or series numbers and additional dates.  Consider including [viewed date]. Available from: so your reader can quickly identify the source. 

Ilaw
contains international maritime conventions which can be cited using the guidance above or referenced to the Ratification of Maritime Conventions publication.

  

Legislation from Foreign Countries

As a minimum, include the Title Year (country) in your text:

Resource Management Act  1991 (New Zealand) 

In your reference list, include any additional information which clarifies this legislation for the reader.  Consider including [viewed date] Available from: so your reader can quickly identify the source: 

Resource Management Act  1991 (New Zealand), reprinted as at 1 March 2017 [viewed 24 March 2017]. Available from: http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1991/0069/latest/DLM230265.html

 Information about legal materials from different countries can be located via WorldLII

Command Paper



Type of source

Command Paper

In text reference

The Law Commission (2006, p.11) reported...

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title (Command paper number). Place of publication: Publisher

Reference list example 

LAW COMMISSION, 2006. Parliamentary costs bill: report on the consolidation of legislation relating to parliamentary costs (Cm 6846). Norwich: TSO

Reference list example  


Notes

The author can be an organization, government department or institution. Enter the details as given on the publication.



Hansard



Type of source

Essay or Chapter in an Edited Book

In text reference

As mentioned... (HC Deb (2001-02) 391 col. 982) 

Reference list format

House abbreviation Deb (Parliamentary Session) Volume number col. column number

Reference list example 

HC Deb (2001-02) 391 col. 982

Reference list example  

HL Deb (2005-06) 685 col. 767 

Notes

Use HL for House of Lords and HC for House of Commons.

Deb stands for Debate and col. stands for column.



Specialist Resources

...

Osiris



Type of source

OSIRIS

In text reference

Abercrombie & Fitch had an annual turnover of... (OSIRIS 2015)

Reference list format

CONTENT PROVIDER, Year of report. Title of report. Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: short version of URL for resource

Reference list example 

OSIRIS, 2015. Company report: Abercrombie & Fitch Co. Bureau van Dijk [viewed 27 July 2015]. Available from: https://osiris.bvdinfo.com

 

 

FAME report



Type of source

FAME report

In text reference

Top Shop had a good profit margin in 2014 (FAME 2015)...

Reference list format

CONTENT PROVIDER, Year of report. Title of report.  Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: short version of URL for resource

Reference list example 

FAME, 2015. Company report: Top Shop (UK) Limited. Bureau van Dijk [viewed 27 July 2015]. Available from: https://fame2.bvdep.com

 

 

Market Research Report (Mintel)



Type of source

Market Research Report (Mintel)

In text reference

Mintel (2008) found that...

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Report title including series and date if available. Edition (if not the first).  Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: short version of URL for resource

Reference list example 

MINTEL, 2008. Clothing retailing – UK – September 2008.  Mintel [viewed 26 January 2009]. Available from: http://www.mintel.com

 

 

XpertHR



Type of source

XpertHR

In text reference

This has been outlined by XpertHR (2015)...

Reference list format

CONTENT PROVIDER, Year created or updated. Title of document.  Publisher [viewed date]. Available from: short version of URL for resource

Reference list example 

XPERTHR, 2015.  Fit for work service in place.  XpertHR [viewed 27 July 2015].  Available from: http://www.xperthr.co.uk

 

Map



Type of source

Map

In text reference

On examination of the Ordnance Survey (2002) map of the Isle of Wight, it can be seen…

Reference list format

AUTHOR, Year of publication. Title of map, scale. Place of publication: Publisher

Reference list example 

ORDNANCE SURVEY, 2002. Hampshire and the Isle of Wight: for touring and local route planning, 1:100000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey

 

 

Statista



Type of source

Statista

In text reference

Figures from OFCOM (2017) demonstrate that…

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Title. Statista [viewed date]. Available from: URL

Reference list example 

OFCOM, 2017. Time spent consuming media per week among children in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2017, by media (in hours). Statista [viewed 12 July 2018]. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/397851/hours-of-media-consumption-by-children-by-media-uk/








Standards



Type of source

Standards

In text reference

According to BS ISO 21500:2012 (British Standards Institution 2012)

Reference list format

AUTHOR(S), Year of publication. Code number: year: title. Place of publication: Publisher

Reference list example

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION, 2012. BS ISO 21500:2012: Guidance on project management. London: British Standards Institution







Secondary References

If you have not read an original source but have read about it in another source and want to discuss it, you must reference the source you have actually viewed.


If possible, try and locate the original source yourself so you can refer to it directly. If not, the format for creating a Harvard reference for secondary references is:

In text examples:

Shuell (cited in Biggs and Tang 2011, p.97) puts forward the idea that…

This idea has been outlined.... (Shuell cited in Biggs and Tang 2011, p.97)

Reference list examples:

You must fully reference the source you have actually read - Biggs and Tang in this example.

BIGGS, J. and C. TANG, 2011. Teaching for Quality Learning at University. 3rd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press


Unpublished sources

Unpublished Document

In text

…aims to provide a top-class university education for all those qualified and able to benefit (Southampton Solent University 2015).

Reference list:

AUTHOR, Year of publication. Title of document. Place of publication (if known): Publisher (if known) [viewed date if online]. Available from: URL (if known)  [unpublished]

SOUTHAMPTON SOLENT UNIVERSITY, 2015. Building an excellent university 2015-2020.  Southampton: Southampton Solent University [viewed 29 July 2019]. Available from: http://portal.solent.ac.uk/documents/vco/southampton-solent-university-strategy-2015-2020.pdf?t=1541075154683  [unpublished]

SOUTHAMPTON SOLENT UNIVERSITY, 2015. Building an excellent university 2015-2020  [viewed 29 July 2019]. Available from: http://portal.solent.ac.uk/documents/vco/southampton-solent-university-strategy-2015-2020.pdf?t=1541075154683  [unpublished]

SOUTHAMPTON SOLENT UNIVERSITY, 2015. Building an excellent university 2015-2020  [unpublished]


Charts, Graphs and Tables


Reference the source where you have taken the chart, table or graph from.  For example, if you found it in a book, reference the book; if found on a website, reference the website etc

Anonymous Documents

In Text

…at NHS Trust A the procedures for discharge are clearly drawn (2017)

Reference List

ANONYMISED TRUST, Year of publication. Title of document.  City or County where published ( leave out if this could identify source): Anonymised Trust [unpublished]

NHS TRUST A, 2017. Guidelines for discharge from hospital. Hampshire: NHS Trust A [unpublished]

NHS TRUST A, 2017. Guidelines for discharge from hospital.  NHS Trust A [unpublished]