Note: All example references on this page use Harvard Style. See section 6.3 Referencing Examples for details of APA and OSCOLA.
6.1 Referencing Essentials
Parts of a reference
Whenever you use information you have heard or read in your work, you must include a reference to the original source. To create the reference follow these 3 steps:
- Record the full reference details of the source including author, date and publication details as you read.
- Include the brief details of the source in the body of your assignment together with your quotation or paraphrase from the source.
- Bring together the reference details of all sources in a reference list or bibliography before you submit the assignment.
References in your assignmentInclude:
- Author's last name
- Date of publication
- Page number if referring to an idea in a specific section
- "Speech marks" around short quotes
- OR the author's ideas paraphrased in your own words
Example 1: Short quoteBoyle (2017, p16) argues that the "impending crisis could be avoided if both sides would commit to a collaborative process.
Example 2: ParaphraseBoyle (2017, p16) believes that collaboration is the best option.
Reference list details
In the reference list include:
BOYLE, J., 2017. Dealing with the political fiasco, 2nd ed. Maidenhead: Open UP
- Author's name
- Year of publication
- Title of source
- Publication details to help someone find the source. These vary by type of source. In the example book above, the edition, place of publication and publisher is included.
Full reference list
Remember to list all the sources you have cited in your assignment in your reference list. Include:
ANDREWS, M., 2002. Using technology in your presentation. In: L.WHITE and E. DAVIDS, eds. Enhancing your presentation. London: Sage, pp.91-104
- Sources in alphabetical order.
- Relevant publishing details for the source: these will vary depending on source, for example website or journal article.
- View date and URL if you have accessed material online.
- Pay attention to the use of CAPITALS, punctuation and italics in the style.
BELL, J., 2005. Doing your research project: a guide for first time researchers in education, health and social science. 4th ed. Maidenhead: Open UP
BRADLEY, P., 2008. Word of the day is 'exaflood'. In: Phil Bradley's weblog. 29 April 2008 [viewed 9 May 2008]. Available from: http://philbradley.typepad.com/phil_bradleys_weblog/
DEAKIN UNIVERSITY, 2006. The literature review [viewed 6 May 2008]. Available from: http://www.deakin.edu.au/library/findout/research/litrev.php
Macbeth, 1948 [film]. Directed by Orson WELLES. USA: Republic Pictures
MESSMER, M., 2003. Public speaking success strategies. The national public accountant, Nov 2003, 26
POOLE, N., 2007. Activating laboratories using Visual Basic for Applications. Engineering education, 2(2), 44-53
STEVENS, M., 1996. How to be better at … giving presentations. London: Kogan Page
WHITFIELD, N., 2008. The evolution of broadband. Personal computer world, June 2008, 30-7
WILLIAMSON, H., 2007. Disconnected youth?: Growing up in Britain's poor neighbourhoods. Journal of social policy, 36(2), 356-7
What is plagiarism?
Plagiarism is pretending that someone else's work or idea is your own. If you don't reference your sources properly, you are committing plagiarism. Plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct, which can have serious consequences for your degree.
Answer the questions below to check your understanding of academic misconduct. Select your answers, then click check and the blue arrow to move onto the next question.
Review referencing essentials
Evaluate your understanding of referencing essentials with this quiz. Select your answer, then click check and move on to the next question using the blue arrow.