Referencing and academic integrity

The American Psychological Association (APA) System

Referencing within your assignment

In-text citations

To include an APA reference to your information source within your assignment text, you need to enter several details alongside your discussion of the source:

  • Author(s) surname/corporate name
  • Year the work was published

These details can be provided in two ways:

  • Incorporate the author’s name into your sentence and follow it with the year in brackets:

Smith (2008) highlights the importance of consistent referencing within an essay.

  • Put both details in brackets at the end of a paraphrased sentence:

In an essay, it is important to reference consistently (Smith, 2008).

There are different formats depending on whether you are using a primary or secondary source and how many authors there are.

Remember:

To avoid an accusation of plagiarism, you must include references within your assignment wherever your work is based on another source.